Ocular Conditions

Myopia is a condition of the eye where light focuses in front, instead of on the retina. This causes distant object to be blurry while close objects appear normal to people with myopia.

Symptoms : blurred distance vision, headaches.

What research is needed this to be found: visual acuity test, refractive index measurement (describes how light propagates through the eye).

Treatment: nearsightedness can be corrected with glasses, contact lenses (negative), refractive surgery or LASIK– a procedure improving the visual acuity.

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Hypermetropia is the opposite of myopia. It is a condition of the eye where light focuses behind, instead of on, the retina. It occurs when the eyeball is shorter than normal. Hypermetropia can be a congenital condition or be brought on by other factors, most commonly ageing.

Symptoms: Hypermetropia causes close objects to be blurry while far objects may appear normal. It is possible that people with hypermetropia see blurry both close and distant objects.

What tests can detect it: visual acuity test, refractive index measurement (describes how light propagates through the eye).

Treatment: Hypermetropia and myopia can be corrected with glasses, contact lenses (positive), refractive surgery or LASIK procedures.

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It can be defined both as myopia and hypermetropia. This condition occurs when the cornea is irregular in shape, in consequence of which it refracts light and sharper at one point than at another. The focusing is on two points of the retina, rather than one. The result is distorted and blurred image.

 Symptoms: blurred objects, headache, fatigue.

What tests can detect it: visual acuity test, refractive index measurement (describes how light propagates through the eye).

Treatment: with glasses, contact lenses (positive), refractive surgery or LASIK procedures.

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The word is from the Greek word for ‘old man’ and is a condition associated with aging in which the eye exhibits a progressively diminished ability to focus on near objects. Presbyopia is a natural process associated with aging and affects almost everyone over 45 years, since after this age intraocular lens gradually loses its elasticity.

Symptoms: more difficult to focus on nearby objects, eye strain, headaches.

What tests can detect it: visual acuity test, refractive index measurement.

Treatment: can be corrected with glasses or contact lenses. Surgery is suitable for those who do not want to wear glasses or lenses.

How serious is the diagnosis: о left without interference, presbyopia can worsen considerably your vision and hamper your activities at work, at home, while driving and so on.

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Dry eye syndrome is one of the most common ailments suffered by people today. It affects over 20% of the population and is perceived as a disease of civilisation. It is characterised by reduced tear production or rapid tear evaporation from the eye surface. Dry eye is a condition where the tears are unable to maintain and clear cornea and conjunctiva, and thus they remain unprotected.

Paradoxical as it may seem, the dry eye syndrome е may occur in the form of excessive tear secretion, but with changed, and inadequate composition.

 Symptoms: fatigue, itching, redness, burning, foreign body sensation, dryness, sensitivity to light, rapid blinking, watery tears.

What tests can detect it: during a routine eye examination and specific qualitative and quantitative tests of the tear film.

Treatment: measures are calming the eye and control of symptoms. Lubricant eye drops known as artificial tears are usually the first step in dry eye treatment. In more serious cases special occlusion plugs can be used to allow retention of tears in the eye.

Highly moisturising eye cream or ointment can be used at night. More frequent blinking in front of the computer or TV helps for a better wetting of the eye.

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Periodic eye and vision examinations are an important part of preventive health care for good eyesight. Statistics show that over 80% of the diseases discovered in early childhood are treatable. Some serious eye problems have clearly pronounced symptoms, therefore children requirе preventive examinations at the age of 6 months, 1 year, 3 years, 6 years and then once every school year.

The most common problems and eye diseases in children:

  • Refractive errors – myopia, hypermetropia, astigmatism. These are related to the improper refraction of rays of the cornea or lens of the eye. Can be corrected with glasses or lenses;
  • Strabismus (squint) – deviation of one eyeball. Can be corrected with glasses or surgery, achieving a balance between stronger and weaker eye muscles. If no measures are taken, the child can develop amblyopia;
  • Amblyopia, also called lazy eye – the brain recognises the image from the stronger eye and suppress that of the weaker. After pupil dilation, dioptres are prescribed. Special exercises are needed to train the weaker eye (lazy) by closing the healthy one.

 

Factors adversely affecting children’s vision:

  • genetic predisposition;
  • prematurity,
  • prolonged eye strain;
  • insufficient lighting for reading and writing;
  • excessive screen time (every half hour at the computer you need a break for about 20 minutes);
  • prolonged glare.

Higher is the risk for prematurely born children and children with family health history. In that case examination by an ophthalmologist is required in the first month of birth in order to prevent the occurrence of retinopathy of premature babies. The frequency of prophylactic examinations is determined by the specialist.

For beautiful and healthy children’s eyes our experts recommend the consumption of products rich in vitamin A, B and C (carrots, tomatoes, dairy products, parsley, mushrooms, citrus fruits, etc.), walking outdoors; wearing sunglasses and regular preventive examinations are required.

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